Home The Piemontese breed Standard of the breed

Standard of the breed

SELECTION AIM

The improvement of the Piemontese bovine breed concerns basically the early maturity of the cattle; this contains the accelerated achievement of the slaughtering age, the weight increase rate, the efficiency of the food conversion, the dressing-out percentage, the characteristics of the carcass, the quality of the meat, calving ease and fertility; together with all this also the milk production is considered in the selection. Furthermore, the improvement concerns eliminating any genetic flaws.

 

CONFORMATION AND TYPE

 


The breed has a marked aptitude for the production of meat, characterized by an adequate somatic development, it has a good daily liveweight gain and a good adaptability to various environments, even in modest feeding conditions, and, finally, it has a good milk production for the breeding of the calves. A broad and muscular chest, wide withers, muscular loins, a long trunk and a good muscular development of the rump and the thighs. The carcass contains only little fat and has a low percentage of bones; the beef is of excellent quality.

MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

Colour of the skin: The skin of the males is grey or light-reddish with a considerable accentuation of black hairs on the head (in particular around the eyes or orbits), on the neck, the shoulders, and on the distal regions of the limbs; sometimes also on the lateral faces of the trunk and on the hind-limbs, forming dark stains or spots. The skin of the cows is white or light- reddish and can show shades of grey or shades of reddish. The skin of the calves at birth is pale fawn.

Pigmentation: the following parts are black: the muzzle, the oral mucosae (the tongue, the palate and the cheeks), the eyelashes, the edges of the eyelids and the ears, the tuft of the foreskin, the lower part of the scrotum, the tassel of the tail, the anal opening and the labia of the vulva, the hooves and the dewclaws. The horns are black up to 20 months of age, but by the adult animals they are yellowish at the basis, a little lighter in the mean third of them, and black at the top. The partial depigmentation of the above-mentioned parts does not disqualify an animal.

Skin: soft, elastic, thin

Shoulders: compact, broad, muscular, well attached to the body and in the right direction.

Neck: broad, muscular and with a rather pronounced gibbosity, relatively long and less muscular by the females, a light and medium-sized dewlap.

Head: expressive, short and large by the males, long and thin by the females, the sinciput is covered with a small tuft, often of a light reddish colour, the forehead is flat and slightly low- lying between the prominent orbital arches; the ears are medium- sized, the eyes are big and show a lively expression (the iris is black); the nose is broad and straight, with wide nostrils, the muzzle is large with a wide mouth and prominent lips.

Withers: wide and muscular, joint to the neck

Back: broad and horizontal.


Loins: muscular and full.

Chest: broad and muscular.

Thorax: deep.

Side: well arched, long and deep.

Abdomen: wide and deep.

Flanks: full, rather long.

Rump: wide and with a good muscular development in the male, wide, long and muscular in the female.

Tail: long, with an abundant tuft.

Thighs: wide and really muscular in the males, full and well- developed in the females.

Buttocks: wide and long, with a considerable muscular development in the males, long and well descending in the females.


Fore limbs: solid, a rather short arm, a long and muscular forearm, a thick and broad knee, solid and medium-long shin, a strong hock, a short pastern, strong and shut claws.

Hind limbs: correct line, without flaws, muscular leg, a large and strong hock, not straight and not sickled, a strong hock, a short pastern, strong and shut claws.

Gait: regular.

Udder: regular shape, regular quarters and well-placed teats, well vascularised.

Testicles: evenly developed and descended in the scrotum.


The following defects, of which only the first three can be observed at birth, involve the exclusion from registration in the Herdbook:

macroglossia

artogryphosis (manifestation of congenital nature, characterised by bowed legs due to contracted tendons)

total depigmentation of a mucous membrane

atypical colour of the skin

brachignathism

beak

cryptorchism

monorchism

 

SCHEME OF THE MEASUREMENTS

 

Withers height (a): from the highest point of the withers to the ground;

Trunk length (b): from the tip of the shoulder to the tip of the ischium;

Chest measurement (c): measured straight behind the articulations of the elbow;

Knee measurement (d): measured in the middle of fore limbs knee.




Ilium width of the rump(1): between the two tips of the ilium (hipbones);

Medium width of the rump (2): between the trochanter (coxo-femoral articulation);

Ischium width of the rump(3): between the two tips of the ischium (pinbones);

Rump length (4): between the tip of the ilium and the tip of the ischium.

MINIMUM MEASUREMENTS (cm)
MALES of
11 months 2 years 4 years and over
Withers height 115 125 135
Trunk lenght
135 150 165
Chest girth
165 185 205
Weight (kg)
350 650 850
FEMALE of 30 months 6 years and over
Withers height 120 125
Trunk lenght
140 145
Chest girth
165 175
Weight (kg)
430 500

 

MEDIUM MEASUREMENTS (cm)
MALES
data taken in the Genetic Center at
11 months
Withers height 119
Trunk lenght
145
Chest girth 181
Knee girth 18.5
Ilium widthof the rump
43.6
Ischium widht of the rump 39.2
Rump lenght
52
Weight (kg) 438
FEMALE
data estimed from Score Card at
42 months 6 years and over
Withers height 131 132
Trunk lenght 160 163
Weight (kg) 522 552

 

REGIONS OF THE BOVINE BODY

1 sinciput 2 front 3 horns 4 nose 5 nostrils 6 muzzle 7 lips
8 chin 9 eye 10 ear 11 cheek 12 temple 13 neck 14 dewlap

 

15 withers 16 back 17 loins 18 rump 19 chest 20 ribs 21 flank 22 breastbone
23 abdomen 24 prepuce 25 scrotum
26 tail 27 shoulder 28 arm 29 elbow 30 fore arm

31 knee 32 shin fore limb 33 fetlock 34 pasterns 35 coronet 36 foot 37 thigh
38 buttock 39 groin 40 leg 41 hock 42 shin hind limb 43 udder 44 teats